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- Citing in APA
Databases for Corporate Hierarchy
- ORBIS (BvD) This link opens in a new windowSearch under Ownership data. Find Ultimate Owner, subsidiaries, headquarters, branches, and more.
- Nexis Uni (LexisNexis) This link opens in a new windowSearch for a company under Discover Topics > Business > Company Dossier. Corporate Affiliations are on the left (Source: Corporate Affiliations)
- Mergent Online This link opens in a new windowSearch by company > Company Details > Subsidiaries.
- MarketLine This link opens in a new windowFind a list of subsidiaries in a company report.
- International Directory of Company HistoriesA good source to track name changes.
- Capital IQ This link opens in a new windowData on U.S. and international public and private companies, M&A deals, executives and boards worldwide; news, investment research, and more. Includes powerful screening tools, chart builders, and Office Plug-In modeling tool. By S&P Global.
Access to Capital IQ is for current faculty, staff, and students only and requires approval by Capital IQ. To request a new Capital IQ account:
1. Click on the Capital IQ database link above; login with abc123 and passphrase; complete DUO authentication.
2. Click on New User in the top right header and enter your utsa.edu email.
3. Check your email box for confirmation and finish the sign-up. Your login credentials will be provided via email from Capital IQ.
Once your Capital IQ account is created, for future access you will need to use the proxied link to Capital IQ above on the library database page, and then your personal Capital IQ credentials to log in.
To download Office Plug-in, go to My Capital IQ tab > My Profile > Downloads. See research guide for more information. You may also complete Capital IQ training at S&P Market Intelligence Academic Resource Center.
Corporate families may have a complex multi-tiered structure with public and/or private subsidiaries and parents. According to the SEC rules, public parents are required to disclose very limited information about their subsidiaries. As a result, financial information may be available at the parent level only.
Sources: In addition to print directories and online databases mentioned here, annual reports (10-Ks) provide an overview of a corporate family and mergers and acquisitions activities. Articles, news and company websites may be also used as sources of information on a corporate family structure.
Understanding the company hierarchy helps you:
- determine parent/subsidiary relationships
- assess whether to search on the parent company to get the most information
- identify different company names, ownership, products, and brands
- keep track of M&A changes in a company ownership
None of the sources will provide a full company structure hierarchy. As a rule of thumb, use multiple sources and corroborate your findings.
These terms are used in Dun & Bradstreet directories. Other sources may use their own definitions to describe relationships in a corporate family. Check Help in databases or introduction sections in print directories for definitions.
Parent - a business that owns more than 50% of another company's stock.
Ultimate Parent - the topmost company within the hierarchy of the entire organization.
Immediate or Direct Parent - the company to which a subsidiary directly reports.
Headquarters - a business establishment where the executive offices of the corporation are located. Implies existence of one or more branches reporting to it, under same name.
Branch - a secondary location of a business which reports to a headquarters. A branch never reports to another branch and always carries the parent name.
Division - a separate operating unit of a corporation. A division may have its own offices, but it is not incorporated nor does it issue stock. All divisions are also classified as branches. Divisions will often have an additional commonly known business name called a Trade Style used for advertising and/or buying purposes.
Single location - a business establishment with no branches reporting to it. A single location may still be a parent and/or a subsidiary.
Affiliate Company - a company in which another firm holds an interest of less than 50% (also known as an associate company in the U.K.)
Subsidiary - a corporation in which more than 50% of its voting stock is owned by another company. The subsidiary may have a different name than the controlling corporation.
Level 1 Subsidiary - reports to the ultimate parent company.
Level 2 Subsidiary - reports to a first level subsidiary company.
Holding Company - A parent corporation that owns enough voting stock in another corporation to control its board of directors (and, therefore, controls its policies and management). A holding company must own at least 80% of voting stock to get tax consolidation benefits, such as tax-free dividends. (Source: Investopedia)
UTSA Libraries no longer update these annual directories. Use for historical research: