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Institute of Texan Cultures' Texans Series
Archeologists believe that many thousands of years ago, people from Asia came to North America. Then, little by little, they moved south through the Americas. Some of these early people came in small groups to what is now Texas, and archeologists think that they arrived here about 12,000 years ago. These people came to be known as Native Americans and they make up many diverse tribes and cultural groups.
The earliest people of Texas were nomadic and they moved from place to place, following large animals that they killed for food. Native Americans that lived on the plains, such as the Apaches, Kiowas, Comanches, Wichitas and Tonkawas, followed buffalo herds and depended on these animals for food, clothing, tools and even their shelter. They used every part of the Buffalo and nothing went to waste.
After Europeans brought horses and guns to the Texas, these tribes became excellent mounted hunters. As more settlers came to Texas, however, Native Americans were pushed off their land and could no longer live and hunt as they had for thousands of years. Instead of moving to follow buffalo herds, tribes were forced to move onto new reservation land set aside for them by the U.S.
- The Caddos, the Wichitas, and the United States, 1846-1901 by F. Todd SmithCall Number: E99 .C12 S66 1996
- The Comanche Empire by Pekka HamalainenCall Number: E99.C85 H27 2008Also, available as an e-book.
- Comanche Treaties with the Republic of TexasCall Number: E99.C85 D468 1977
- The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820–1875 by Gary Clayton AndersonCall Number: F395.A1 A53 2005
- Encyclopedia of Texas IndiansCall Number: E78. T4 E53 1999Volume 1 : A to Z; Volume 2 Treaties
- The Indians of Texas: From Prehistoric to Modern Times by William W. NewcombAvailable in print and as an e-book.
A classic work on the indigenous peoples of Texas.
- Land of the Tejas: Native American Identity and Interaction in Texas, A.D. 1300 to 1700 by John Wesley ArnnCall Number: E78.T4 A76 2012
Handbook of Texas
- Apache IndiansThis article details the story of the Apaches in Texas.The several branches of Apache tribes occupied an area extending from the Arkansas River to Northern Mexico and from Central Texas to Central Arizona.
- Caddo IndiansThe Caddo tribe traces its lineage to AD800. This article details the history of this agricultural-based tribe.
- Coahuiltecan IndiansThis tribe lived in South Texas. During the Spanish colonial period a majority of these natives were displaced from their traditional territories by Spaniards advancing from the south and Apaches retreating from the north.This articles explains the tribal history.
- Comanche IndiansPerhaps, the most influential tribe in Texas' history. The Comanches, exceptional horsemen who dominated the Southern Plains, played a prominent role in Texas frontier history throughout much of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This article recounts this history.
- IndiansNative Americans have been present in Texas for thousands of years. This article traces the history of Native Americans from their arrival to the present day.
- Jumano IndiansThe Jumanos were buffalo hunters and traders, and played an active role as middlemen between the Spanish colonies and various Indian tribes.This article explains the history of the tribe.
- Karankawa IndiansThis article highlights the now-extinct tribe that lived along the Gulf Coast.
- Tigua IndiansThis article details the Tigua tribe that is located near El Paso.
- Wichita IndiansThis articles describes the tribe that settled in northern Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
- American Indians in Texas at the Spanish Colonial MissionsThe Mission of the American Indians in Texas at the Spanish Colonial Missions is to work for the preservation and protection of the culture and traditions of the Tap Pilam Coahuiltecan Nation and other indigenous people of the Spanish Colonial Missions in South Texas and Northern Mexico through: education, research, community outreach, economic development projects and legislative initiatives at the federal, state and local levels.
- American Indian Movement Of Central TexasAIM is "Pledged to fight White Man's injustice to Indians, his oppression, persecution, discrimination and malfeasance in the handling of Indian Affairs. No area in North America is too remote when trouble impends for Indians. AIM shall be there to help the Native People regain human rights and achieve restitutions and restorations."
- Cherokee Citizens League of Southeast TexasThe Mission of the Cherokee At Large Voters League of Texas is to assemble, clarify and distribute accurate information that will assist Cherokee Citizens in decisions regarding Cherokee Nation Elections. The goal is to build a community of at large Cherokee Citizens who can express their voting rights to enhance the quality of life for all Cherokee Nation residents and to secure a positive future for the Cherokee people.
- Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of TexasThe Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas has the oldest reservation in the State located on approximately 10,200 acres in the Big Thicket of Deep East Texas. The Tribe is a fully functioning sovereign government with a full array of health and human services, including law enforcement and emergency services. There are more than 1,200 members, about half of whom live on the reservation. The Tribe is ruled by both a Principal Chief and a Second Chief who are elected by the people and serve lifetime terms.
- Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of TexasThe Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas (KTTT), formerly known as the Texas Band of Traditional Kickapoo, is one of three federally recognized Tribes of Kickapoo people. The KTTT Reservation is located on the Rio Grande on the US-Mexico border in western Maverick County. Also, it’s just south of the city of Eagle Pass, as part of the community of Rosita Valley. The KTTT has a population of 960 enrolled members and was officially recognized by the Texas Indian Commission in 1977.
- Big Bear MuseumOpened November 15th 2014 in Cleburne. This museum features a collection of Native American artifacts donated by Lenard "Big Bear" Beal. Additional artifacts supplement his collection to provide a complete overview of Native America from 17000 years ago to present.Address:
101 Chisholm Tr.
Cleburne, Texas 76033
Thursday - Saturday 10:00 - 5:00
Sunday 1:00 - 5:00
$5.00 for Adults
$4.00 for Seniors
$2.00 ages 8 - 18
7 & Under FREE
- Kwahadi Museum of the American IndianLocated in Amarillo, The Kwadahi Museum's exhibits gives visitors a glimpse into the cultures of the Southwest. The museum displays fine paintings, bronzes, fine old beadwork and material culture items.Address:
9151 Interstate 40 East
Amarillo, Texas 79118
Saturdays & Sundays 1pm to 5pm
$7/Adults $5/Seniors $3/Youth
- Museum of the AmericasThe Museum of the Americas presents the colorful and diverse heritage of native peoples of the Americas through a representative collection of late 19th and 20th century artifacts, crafts, and folk art. The rich cultural traditions of these peoples are reflected in the intricate and distinctive designs of the objects they make for daily use, for religious ceremonies and for trade.Address:
216 Fort Worth Hwy.
Weatherford, Texas 76086