Ethnic Texans

Open access books on Texas ethnic groups

Institute of Texan Cultures' Texans Series

By all counts, most Africans who arrived in Texas before 1860 were brought in as slaves. A few came as free people, indentured servants, or escaped slaves—all categories established by other people. Whatever the case, their story is linked directly to Spanish and Anglo-American settlement which largely defined Texas.

Handbook of African American Texas