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Scientific Writing

Scientific writing or science writing usually refers to research articles reporting original research in journals. Science writing also includes other kinds of writing such as review articles (which summarize and synthesize previous research articles on a specific topic), annotated bibliographies (which aid others in performing their research), abstracts or notes (which summarize experiments or studies), and grant proposals (which seek funding for research). The point of science writing is for a scientist to communicate with an audience of peers. Since the purpose is communication and not entertainment, scientific writing should be precise, clear and objective.

Here are some resources to help you write for academic science audiences:

ACS Style

ACS style was created by the American Chemical Society for use in chemistry publications and follows guidelines set forth by the ACS Style Guide.

ACS Style Examples

Author, A.A.; Author, B.B.  Title of Article. Journal Abbreviation Year, Volume, xx-xx

Caruso, R. A.; Susha, A.; Caruso, F. Multilayered Titania, Silica, and Laponite Nanoparticle  Coatings  on  Polystyrene  Colloidal  Templates  and  Resulting Inorganic Hollow Spheres. Chem.Mater. 2001, 13, 400–409.

Author, A.A.; Author, B.B. Journal Abbreviation Year, Volume, xx-xx; Chem. Abstr. Year, Volume, ColumnAbst Number

Mohamed, A. M.; Hawata, A.; El-Torgoman, M.; El-Kousy, S. M.; Ismail, A. E.; Øgaard Madsen, J.; Søtofte, I.; Senning, A. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002,  2039–2045; Chem. Abstr. 2003, 138, 4195

Author, A.A. (if any).  Title of Site. URL (accessed Month Day, Year), other identifying information (if any)

ACS Publications Division Home Page. http://pubs.acs.org (accessed Nov 7, 2004). Chemical Abstracts Service. STN on the Web. http://stnweb.cas.org (accessed Nov 7, 2004)

Author, A.A.; Author, B.B. Chapter Title. Book Title, Edition; Series Information (if avail.); Publisher: Place of Publication, Year; Volume, pp xx-xx

DAT 2017-2018: strategies, practice and review; Kaplan Publishing: New York, NY, 2016

(Belosludtsev, Juškevičius et al. 2017)

APA Style Guide

APA Style was developed by the American Psychological Association for use in the social sciences but is frequently used by researchers from other scientific disciplines as well.

APA Style - 7th edition

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. DOI's URL 


Baider, L., Uziely, B., & Kaplan De-Nour, A. (1994). Progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery in cancer patients. General Hospital                          Psychiatry, 16(5), 340–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-8343(94)90021-3


List up to 20 authors by their last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author.

Author (person or organization). (Year published or updated) Title of page. Website. https://xxxxx

*Substitute (n. d.). for the year if there is no known date of publication.



U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127


Last, A. A., Last, B. B., & Last, C. C. (Year). Book title. Publisher.

*Substitute (n. d.). for the year if there is no known date of publication.


Achterberg, J. (1985). Imagery in healing. Shambhala Publications.



List up to 20 authors by their last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author.


Include the author's last name and publication year:


Teaching techniques and reflecting on the group process are unique components of guided imagery received in a group context (Yalom & Leszcz, 2005).


Or you can introduce the citation like this:


For example, Ball et al. (2003) conducted guided imagery in a group psychotherapy format with 11 children  ...


For a direct quotation, include the page number:


Guided imagery and relaxation techniques have even been found to “reduce distress and allow the immune system to function more effectively” (Trakhtenberg, 2008, p. 850).


For more information on in-text citing, consult this page: