Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs)

Types of sources

types of sources
From IUPUI Libraries Introduction to Library Research Guide
Scholarly Publications
  • Contain articles written by experts in a particular field and the primary audience for these articles is other expertspeer review process workflow
  • Generally report on original research
  • Many of these publications are peer-reviewed
  • Scholars in the same field review the research and findings before articles are published
  • Written by and for faculty, researchers, or other experts
  • Use technical language
  • Include a full reference list of sources cited in the article
  • Often peer reviewed
  • Often aimed at a very specific research area

Books & Book Chapters

  • Academic books are edited by an expert or group of experts.
    • Occasionally, but not frequently, peer-reviewed
  • Good source for a thorough investigation of a topic
  • Written by a variety of authors depending on subject matter
  • Language can very according to subject matter
  • Likely to include an overview of research or issues related to its topic

From Berkeley, Scrutinizing Science: Peer Review

Conference Proceedings 
  • Compilations of papers, research, and information presented at conferences
  • Sometimes peer-reviewed
  • Often the first publication of research that later appears in a scholarly publication
  • More commonly encountered (via databases and other searching) in science and engineering fields than in the arts and humanities.  
Government Documents
  • Disseminated by the Government Printing Office (GPO)
  • All three branches of the government to federal depository libraries
  • The many departments of the government publish reports, data, statistics, white papers, consumer information, transcripts of hearings, and more
  • Some of the information is technical and scientific, other information is meant for the general public
Theses and Dissertations
  • The result of an individual student's research while in a graduate program
  • Written under the guidance and review of an academic committee but are not considered peer-reviewed
Popular Magazines
  • Can help introduce a topic and as well as how that topic is being discussed.
  • Written by professional writers for a general audience
  • Use language is easy for the layperson to understand
  • Fact-checked through the editorial process of the publication they appear in
  • Usually no reference list/li>
  • Often helpful to read when you don't know a lot about the topic yet
  • May contain an opinion, argument, or analysis of an issue
Trade Journals
  • Written by and for practitioners/workers in a field (nurses, teachers, social workers, etc
  • Focused on a specific field
  • Not intended to be "scholarly" but rather to communicate news and trends
  • Use the language (and jargon) of the field