Please refer to the APA handbook for a complete list of acceptable abbreviations.
Only include bibliographic information for those works explicitly cited in your work. Some citations style call for a "Works Consulted" bibliography; APA is not one of those.
Please refer to the APA Paper Format page for more information on formatting.
When citing a source in the text of your paper, you will almost always include the author(s) last names and the year of publication or presentation.
- 1 author:
- Example: "Yoga thrives throughout the world today" (Belling, 2001).
- 2 authors: Always include both last names and the year of publication:
- Example: "Dog walking is a healthy activity for humans and canines" (Moore & Smith, 2011)
- 3-5 authors: Include all 3 last names on the initial citation and substitute "et al" after the first author in subsequent citations of the same work.
- Example: "Actual income for many in the Belt is below the typical measures used elsewhere" (Peevely, French, Stanley, & Montgomery, 2005).
- 6 or more authors: Give the last name of the first author, followed by et al and the date.
- Example: "Operational Expense was another variable contributing to the variance being explained in the model" (Peevely, et al., 2005).