Elementary Education

This guide was created to assist the professors and students focusing on elementary education within the Department of Interdisciplinary Learning & Teaching.

General Rules


Please refer to the APA handbook for a complete list of acceptable abbreviations.

Works Cited:

Only include bibliographic information for those works explicitly cited in your work. Some citation styles call for a "Works Consulted" bibliography; APA is not one of those.


Please refer to the APA Paper Format page for more information on formatting.

In-Paper Citations

When citing a source in the text of your paper, you will almost always include the author(s) last names and the year of publication or presentation.

  • 1 author:
    • Example: "Yoga thrives throughout the world today" (Belling, 2001).
  • 2 authors: Always include both last names and the year of publication:
    • Example: "Dog walking is a healthy activity for humans and canines" (Moore & Smith, 2011)
  • 3-5 authors: Include all 3 last names on the initial citation and substitute "et al" after the first author in subsequent citations of the same work.
    • Example: "Actual income for many in the Belt is below the typical measures used elsewhere" (Peevely, French, Stanley, & Montgomery, 2005).
  • 6 or more authors: Give the last name of the first author, followed by et al and the date.
    • Example: "Operational Expense was another variable contributing to the variance being explained in the model" (Peevely, et al., 2005).