BBL 7013: Research Design and Statistics for Culture, Literacy and Language (Lindahl)

This guide is designed to give PhD students assistance in Quantitative Research Design for Dr. Lindahl's class.

General Rules


Please refer to the APA handbook for a complete list of acceptable abbreviations.

Works Cited:

Only include bibliographic information for those works explicitly cited in your work.  Some citations style call for a "Works Consulted" bibliography; APA is not one of those.


Please refer to the APA Paper Format page for more information on formatting.

In-Paper Citations

When citing a source in the text of your paper, you will almost always include the author(s) last names and the year of publication or presentation.

  • 1 author:
    • Example: "Yoga thrives throughout the world today" (Belling, 2001).
  • 2 authors: Always include both last names and the year of publication:
    • Example: "Dog walking is a healthy activity for humans and canines" (Moore & Smith, 2011)
  • 3-5 authors: Include all 3 last names on the initial citation and substitute "et al" after the first author in subsequent citations of the same work.
    • Example: "Actual income for many in the Belt is below the typical measures used elsewhere" (Peevely, French, Stanley, & Montgomery, 2005).
  • 6 or more authors: Give the last name of the first author, followed by et al and the date.
    • Example: "Operational Expense was another variable contributing to the variance being explained in the model" (Peevely, et al., 2005).