ACS Electronic Resources Citation ExamplesACS Article Citation ExamplesACS Book Citation ExamplesACS Other Citation Examples
APA Paper FormatAPA Electronic ResourcesAPA BooksAPA ArticlesAPA Non-Print ResourcesAPA Theses and Dissertation
APSA Electronic Citation ExamplesAPSA BooksAPSA ArticlesAPSA Government DocumentsAPSA Other
Bluebook Paper SampleBluebook CasesBluebook StatutesBluebook BooksBluebook PeriodicalsBluebook Electronic ResourcesBluebook Other
Chicago Paper FormatChicago General FormatsChicago Electronic SourcesChicago BooksChicago ArticlesChicago Government Documents
CSE Paper SampleCSE Electronic ResourcesCSE BooksCSE ArticlesCSE Other
ASA Electronic ResourcesASA BooksASA ArticlesASA Other
MLA Paper FormatMLA Electronic ResourcesMLA BooksMLA Print ArticlesMLA Non-Print ResourcesMLA Theses & Dissertations
Turabian Paper SampleTurabian BibliographiesTurabian Basic FormatTurabian Online SourcesTurabian Other
AMA Electronic ResourcesAMA BooksAMA Journal Citation ExamplesOther AMA Citation Examples
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Cite it Right  

This guide assists users in formatting citations correctly for use in academic papers.
Last Updated: Apr 7, 2016 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Many databases have citation creation tools. Some databases do not create citations that are completely correct. Please check your work against the appropriate style manual or examples in this guide.  You are responsible for format correctness.


Why Citing is Important

Citations allow the reader to determine information's source.  Discussing citations encompasses footnotes, end notes, bibliographies, works consulted, works cited, and more.  Citations are a uniform way in which the author of a work may convey where his information comes from.  Since it is standardized, readers in specific disciplines become accustomed to retrieving information from published works in a certain way.  This allows for ease of access to pertinent information.  In addition, proper citation ensures credit is given where credit is due and helps reduce unintentional plagiarism.


Citation Aids

If you are having trouble with citations, never fear!  Help is available.

Citation Generators

EndNote is a program that allows a user to cite while writing and compiles a reference library to facilitate creating bibliographies.  UTSA students can download the program and use it for free by logging into ASAP and selecting Software Downloads.  The UTSA library system offers an online EndNote Tutorial and Research Guide.

Bibme give you the option of plugging in bibliographic information yourself or automatically filling in bibliographic information for items it can find. It will format the citation and bibliography for you.

Citation Machine allows you to plug in bibliographic information and will format the citation for you.

Zotero will "clip, sort, and cite the entire web," according to its website.

Reference Books

Patrons can also check out style guides that go into detail about using specific citation styles.  Most of the library's databases will generate a citation for you, but be sure to double check it for accuracy.


When in doubt, you can talk to your professor or ask a librarian.


Take a look at the library's tutorials for citing books, articles, and websites.


Citation Styles by Academic Discipline

Department Typical Citation Style
Anthropology AAA
Architecture Chicago, APA, or MLA
Art History Chicago or Turabian
Biology CSE
Business APA
Chemistry CSE
Communications APA
Computer Science Chicago
Criminal Justice APA
Education APA
English Literature MLA
History Chicago or Turabian
Law and Legal Studies Bluebook
Linguistics LSA
Medicine & Health AMA
Modern Language MLA
Philosophy Chicago or MLA
Political Science APSA
Psychology APA
Sociology ASA


If you are unsure about the correct citation style to use, verify with your professor or check your syllabus.


Librarians' Note

Citations styles are fluid.  They change and update to meet the need of changing research and publication. That makes this guide a fluid and imperfect document.  If you notice something that could be updated, corrected, or changed, please ask a librarian.  Also, if you would like to offer up a paper to illustrate one of the citation styles lacking a paper sample, let us know.

UTSA Libraries

This guide was originally created by Emme Lopez.

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Basic Info

To create a citation, one must have the bibliographic information. 

Bibliographic information describes and identifies a work as follows:

  1. WHO created the work
  2. WHEN it was published, created, or performed
  3. WHERE it was published, created, or performed
  4. WHAT is the format (book, film, play, study, proceeding)

When using electronic information, one might need:

  1. The URL or Database Name
  2. WHEN the URL or database was visited

Do Not Cite...

Common knowledge does not require citation.  Even if you learned a few facts while researching, you don't necessarily need to cite all of them. What constitutes "common knowledge" will vary according to discipline and the audience your paper addresses.  If in doubt, cite it.  It is better to over-cite than to unintentionally plagiarize another person's work.


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