Ancient Greece & Rome: History & Culture

Classic Texts Online

References and Abbreviations

Books and articles referencing classical texts often use standard abbreviations instead of complete citations. For example: Livy (23.7.3) or Liv. 23.7.3 for Livy's History of Rome, Book 23, Chapter 7, Section 3.

You can find these using the Perseus Digital Library's Abbreviation Help. Links from that list lead you to the text (in English translation, when available).

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